2012/1/20

SOPA


隨時消滅網站的超級惡法
SOPA,全名是「Stop Online Piracy Act」(禁止網絡盜版法案),是一條現時正在美國審議的法案。名字說得好聽,但實際上SOPA容許大型媒體在「未的情況下強行拿下任何他們認為有問題的網站嚴重影響網上世界的運作。我們每天使用的搜尋引擎、社交網站、以及所有創新的科技公司都有可能因為SOPA而出現問題。

現時公開反對SOPA的人包括:

  • Google
  • Yahoo!
  • YouTube
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • 維基百科
  • AOL
  • LinkedIn
  • eBay
  • Mozilla
  • Reddit
  • 無國界記者
  • 人權觀察組織

支持SOPA的人?想也知道是唱片公司、娛樂公司、大藥廠,以及其它既得利益者:

  • 迪士尼
  • SONY
  • 華納
  • EMI
  • 環球唱片
  • ESPN
  • Nike
  • Reebok
  • Pfizer
  • Visa
  • MasterCard
  • News Corporation

為什麼SOPA完全沒有必要
現時,美國已經有千禧年數位著作權(Digital Millennium Copyright Act, DMCA)。任何人都可以透過DMCA法案要求網絡服務提供者把侵犯版權的檔案拿下。例如大家在YouTube有時會看到被刪除的侵權影片,這就是DMCA的影響。重點是,DMCA設有「安全港條款」(safe harbor provision)條款保障了網絡服務提供者(以上述的情況就是 YouTube)不會受用家上載的內容影響。

可是,SOPA並不保障網絡服務提供者,也就是說在SOPA的世界,只要有一個用家上載了侵權影片,整個 YouTube.com 都可以受影響!


Google、Wikipedia 與各網站,群起以行動抗議美國 SOPA / PIPA 法案

此時此刻 SOPA(Stop Online Piracy Act)這個名詞應該已經不需多作介紹了吧?但如果你真的不知道,那 1 月 18 號也就是今天,應該將讓你很難忽視此法案的存在 -- 這個防堵線上盜版的法案,因為涉及干涉網路的開放與自由風氣,所以遭到 Google、Wikipedia 與其他網站群起以行動進行抗議,而其中以 Wikipedia 的關站抗議最為大眾所關注,畢竟大家報告才做到一半該站本來就是由分享精神所支持,而美國政府若是開出箝制網路言論自由的審查機制先例的話,那後果肯定將無法設想。另一方面,今天 Google 也在其搜尋首頁放上了對美國國會的喊話網頁連結與首頁圖片,提出「停止盜版,而非自由(End Piracy, Not Liberty)」訴求,這也幾乎訴說了一切。現在這波抗議行動,響應的網站與網友也已經越來越多,由此可見大家都很能了解自由的可貴,以及此事的嚴重程度。點擊最後一個引用來源可以深入了解此法案的相關整理資訊。


美國聯邦檢察官抄了 Megaupload 檔案分享網站


是恰巧,還是故意?就在各大網站為了反 SOPA 法案主動關站之後一天,美國司法部抄了最大的檔案分享下載網站,並逮捕、起訴了該站的創辦人和其他多名人士。這起訴書的用詞相當強硬,稱 Megaupload 為「有組織的國際犯罪企業,應當為大規模的國際線上盜版負責」,並且為創辦人 Kim Dotcom 帶來了 1.75 億美元的不法所得,同時造成版權擁有人 5 億美元的損失。起訴的罪名同樣嚇人,從詐騙錢財、洗錢的各 20 年有期徒刑,到侵犯版權的 5 年,罪名可以說是非常地重。

當然 Megaupload 本身就是一個常年遊走於灰色地帶的網站,上面有著大量盜版軟體、音樂、電影也是眾所皆知的事,但它主要的保護傘在於網站可以宣稱所有內容皆為使用者上傳,網站本身對上面的檔案內容不知情 -- 這正是 SOPA 法案準備杜絕的重要漏洞之一,因此各方面都直接把這次的行動視為 SOPA 攻防的前哨戰。在網民方面,Anonymous 隨即對美國司法部、FBI 等官方網站,以及 MPAA、RIAA、Universal 等進行了 DDoS 攻擊,到現在近 12 個小時後,RIAA 的網站依然無法連線。

美國政府將這個事件看做是完全的版權侵犯問題,但問題的根源其實仍然在於「網路」這個東西,究竟該不該有人來管?管到什麼程度,算是侵犯了個人權利?網站上的內容版權究竟該如何規範?這麼多年來這些問題都被刻意的無視,但終究到了該正視的時候了。這場網路大戰或許就將一舉決定了網路的未來...

2012/1/11

Cynthia and I as English Leaners


  From my first time learned English when I was nine years old, thirteen years have passed. On the way of learning English, I meet many setbacks, but I also meet many people who helped me. These experiences were hard, happy and worthy, and they all became my precious memories. For a long time, I always thought that all other student, their process of learning English were about me. After all, the textbooks we used are similar. But I was wrong, totally wrong; the gap of English ability between the students who were good at it and the students who were not good at it was much bigger than I thought. I felt very ashamed about my misunderstanding. Last week teacher played a recording file about a girl called Cynthia sharing her experiences of learning English. This recording file confirmed my thinking more. And I knew that I had a lot of difference with her. For example, my speaking ability was better than her. I will talk about the reasons later. We had some differences with each other, but we also had the same idea and ability, like the future wish. As an English learner, I thought it was a chance to know the other people whose process of English was different with me. Not only it related to my achievement in this subject, but also I want to analysis my process of learning English from many sides totally.

  First let’s talk about my English learning situation. I started learning English about when I was nine year. Compare with the other learners, I was better in listening. For me, it was not very hard for me to find the key part from people’s talking and figure out what were they talking about. So why my talent in listening is better than my other ability like reading and writing, I think there were two main reasons, the family element and the unconscious training. I regard the family element as one of the reasons is because I am not the only one who is good at listening to the others talking. My dad, my mom, and my younger, they are all good at this, especially my sister is the best in my home. The other reason was unconscious training, because in my home, we always called each other in place instead of walking to the room. Perhaps because this kind of environment, I was used for finding the information in the sentences, otherwise I had to ask my family to say it again. In addition, the Chinese stand-up comedy, which was one of my favorite leisure activities, also trained me unconsciously. Because unlike the movie, they didn’t have subtitles, I had to listen very carefully to enjoy the video. On the other hand, my speaking ability was pretty good, too. In fact, my speaking ability was not so good before until I started on the special speaking lesson with a Dutch lives in Taiwan called Leen at weekend. The lesson stopped for about two year because I need to prepare the high school entrance exam. And then we continued the lesson because of a special chance. When I was at first grade in the high school, one time I was sick and lied on the bed, my mom asked me do I want to leave of absence for one year to concentrate on strong my health and I agreed, so I had time to continue the lesson with Leen again. In fact, the speaking lesson was not like the usual class. We didn’t use the textbooks; we were just talking what I was interested like TV programs, movies or video games once a week as two friends in the chat. This form of communication really helped me a lot because it didn’t have the exam, I could chat with Leen with a very relax mood and I didn’t need to focus on correct grammar, only needed to say what I wanted to perform advisably. Also, I have studied abroad in Australia for seventeen days during winter vacation when I was sixteen years old. I had many chances to talk with foreigners in that time like ordering the food. But my reading and writing ability need to improve more, the main reason was that the number of vocabulary I remember was not enough. About my future ambition, I wanted to be an elementary school teacher. Not only because more than one person had said that my personality suit to be a teacher but also I didn’t exclude this job and I liked children.

  In the same way, according to Cynthia’s answering, she thought she was good at speaking, although I didn’t think so after I listened to the file. In addition, she said she was not good at reading, just like me. But her reason was that she didn’t have the enough patience to read the all articles. I speculated that she might skip and ignore many important points in the articles when she was reading. Off course, it was just my guess. Unlike me, she also knew she was not good at listening. When she was asked how to solve the problem, she thought she could be better by talking with her “boring” teacher. I agree her idea. About her future ambition, just like me, she also wanted to be a teacher to teach young children because she thought they were cute, but she wanted to be a cram school teacher, not an elementary school teacher. That was different with me.

  After comparing with her and me, I found that she really had lots of differences with me, like she was not good at listening and I was good at it. Although some details were different, we were very alike in such many places, both we were not good at reading, both we wanted to be a teacher. Like what I said, the details were different, she was not good at reading because the lack of patience and my reason was the lack of vocabulary. Anyway, both we had something not enough in English learning, so we needed to study hard to achieve our targets

2012/1/8

[轉]關於新房在Shaft的工作


原文 http://www.ptt.cc/bbs/C_Chat/M.1297513837.A.0B9.html

根據以往的資料和這本STAFF的訪談,可以總結出新房監督在SHAFT工作的一些作風:

1、關於SHAFT的製作體制。
自04年新房加入SHAFT社後,SHAFT&新房的每一部作品幾乎都是採用
 監督+系列監督/總監督+副監督 這種雙頭的製作體制。

2、關於監督們的職責。
一般動畫的監督都是負責第一話和最後一話的分鏡/演出,這樣後面集數的分鏡人員就可
以模仿監督在第一話的分鏡風格,讓這部作品大致定型。

但是SHAFT比較特殊,在大部分作品裡新房都放棄第一話的製作,
而是讓該作的系列監督/副監督負責第一話的分鏡/演出,自己在中期加入製作。
而且SHAFT作品的字幕一直都有一個毛病,就是OP/ED上的字幕的人名一般不出現第2次。
所以在字幕上看不到分鏡或者演出裡有新房的名字,或者路人的CV。

所以 系列監督/副監督 是這部作品真正的出力最大的人,是這部作品的風格的主導
是一個進行全程監督的職位,是這個作品的真正的監督。
這個職位在SHAFT社就相當於該作品的監督,掌握著該作品的細節的決定權。

而新房主要的任務是召集製作人員,進行職務分配,讓作品大致定型。
新房自己的說法是,採用系列監督/副監督可以抑制自己的作風
讓系列監督們的個人風格發揚光大。

例:
女僕咖啡廳的副監督:龍輪直征,在第一話分鏡時採用了大量由腳底往上看的仰視鏡頭
以及從各種鏡面反射出人物的鏡頭,這樣就決定了整部作品的鏡頭風格,之後的幾話
都頻頻出現此類鏡頭。

3、關於SHAFT的演出家們的風格。
大沼心擔任系列監督的作品有:
不可思議的教室、魔法老師第二季、夏之嵐。
擔任監督的作品有ef系列,笨蛋測驗召喚獸。

值得一提的是,這些作品的腳本或系列構成都是高山擔當
這些作品共同點都是原作遭到了不同程度的粉碎。
高山的其他的非SHAFT作品也是原作粉碎,比如食靈零、笨蛋測驗召喚獸。


所以SHAFT真正的原作粉碎機的名號應該由這兩個人的組合承擔。
風格是:原作粉碎、neta惡搞。ef是異類。


龍輪直征擔任副監督的作品有:
絕望先生、女僕咖啡廳。
擔任監督的作品有 妄想改造人改藏。
風格是:將各種元素結合在一起的創意。


尾石達也擔任系列監督的作品有:
化物語。
風格是:三次元實寫、文字風暴、抽象符號。


宮本幸裕擔任系列監督的作品有:
瑪利亞狂熱、荒川爆笑團、魔法少女小圓、電波女與青春男。
風格是:作風穩健,將溫馨與搞笑張弛結合。小圓是異類。



4、關於SHAFT的OP和ED的製作風格。
每部作品的OP/ED一般都是交由該作的系列監督/副監督擔當製作
人手不夠時新房會請外援。

大沼心:
向陽素描OP、ef系列OP、化物語蛇章OP、夏之嵐OP。
風格是:色塊背景,人物肢體動作豐富,比較傾向賣萌。

龍輪直征:
絕望先生OP、絕望先生ED、荒川爆笑團ED、女僕咖啡廳ED。
風格是:擅長各種風格,充滿想像力。

尾石達也:
不可思議的教室OP、魔法老師第二季OP、化物語蟹章/貓章OP
瑪利亞狂熱OP、以及各種字幕特效製作。
風格是:三次元實寫,字幕特效切割畫面,高速閃幀,搖晃鏡頭,擅長平面設計。

外援:
請的都是比較具有個人風格的演出家來製作。
比如劇團狗咖喱的珂拉琪風格的實物貼紙動畫:
瑪利亞狂熱ED,化物語的回想,俗·絕望先生的OP,魔法少女小圓的異空間設計。


5、說到底新房到底主要在幹些什麼。
新房主要在於尋找與發現具有個人風格的演出家,準確的分配他們在每個作品的職位
將他們的風格融合在一起從而支撐起這種屬於SHAFT風格的演出手法。

例 1:
在決定化物語的人設時,SHAFT社長久保田和新房討論究竟誰合適
久保田想到了新房多年未合作的渡邊明夫。

新房說渡邊現在工作重心是遊戲可能不會答應
但是渡邊得知是新房監督的時候就決定過來了。

啟用渡邊是化物語成功的決定性因素之一
渡邊作為化物語的總作畫監督的工作量遠遠超出一般總作監的工作量
幾乎每話都會負責大量的修正工作。

渡邊在化物語的工作還遠遠不止人物設計和總作畫監督
還負責了主要的背景構圖設計和色彩設計工作。

而且每話的眼部特寫,新房只交給渡邊一個人畫。


例2:
在化物語的訪談中說到,化物語的蝸牛章交給武內宣之先生負責分鏡
新房的理由是武內先生家裡有小孩子,也許能比較理解小學生的蝸牛的想法
還請他務必採用公園的背景。

是靠食靈零和空之境界-俯瞰風景而迅速躥紅的監督
這跟動畫演出家們普通的去外社打工的情況不一樣
他是硬是把這位監督拉過來畫了化物語第10話的分鏡。

例3:
在做荒川爆笑團時,新房把做極具特色的薔薇少女第2季OP的分鏡的
山本沙代小姐拉過來做荒川爆笑團的OP。
在做女僕咖啡廳時,新房和久保田社長親自拜訪梅津泰臣請求他做OP。

例4:
化物語的系列監督,尾石達也先生說道
只要獲得了新房監督的信任,他就會把工作完全交由你負責。
新房也在訪談中說道,化物語的成功,代表著「尾石色」的誕生。

所以化物語應該算是極具尾石達也先生的風格的作品。
新房在化物語主要負責蛇章的製作,尾石達也主要負責的是貓章。

例5:
化物語的奇特的腳本家。

新房在決定腳本的創作人員時賭了一把
這次沒有採用腳本家來寫腳本,而是採用了編輯。

因為想要還原原作,腳本家的能力反而適得其反。

所以這次需要的不是「再構成技術」,而是取捨對白的『情報處理』也就是編輯技術。

讓編輯去「寫」腳本

從客觀的校對來判斷哪一部分比較有趣
哪一部分是非常必要的,就像是把小說編輯成一本雜誌。

所以說到底 新房風格/SHAFT演出 到底是一群作風奇特的演出家們的集合體罷。